Photovoltaic off-grid power generation system technical solution
A whole Photovoltaic off grid system need five components as follows :
Photovoltaic Panel : Off -grid power generation system is
made up of a number of individual solar modules usually of 12 volts
with power outputs of between 50 and 300+ watts each. These PV panels
are then combined into a single array to give the desired power output.
Batteries: Batteries are used to store the solar-produced electricity for night time or emergency use during the day. Depending upon the solar array configuration, battery banks can be of 12V, 24V or 48V and many hundreds of amperes in total.
Charge Controller: A charge controller regulates and controls the output from the solar array to prevent the batteries from being over charged (or over discharged) by dissipating the excess power into a load resistance. Charge controllers within a stand alone PV system are optional but it is a good idea to have one for safety reasons.
Inverter: The inverter can be another optional unit in a stand alone system. Inverters are used to convert the 12V, 24V or 48 Volts direct current (DC) power from the solar array and batteries into an alternating current (AC) electricity and power of either 120 VAC or 240 VAC for use in the home to power AC mains appliances such as TV’s, washing machines, freezers, etc.
Wiring: The final component required in and PV solar system is the electrical wiring. The cables need to be correctly rated for the voltage and power requirements.